Groundwater depletion and associated CO2 emissions in India

India, the world's largest groundwater user, withdraws about 230 billion m3 groundwater annually for irrigation. Excessive groundwater pumping in India leads to rapid groundwater depletion and CO2emissions. Here, using multiple data sources (observation wells and GRACE) to estimate groundwater depletion in India, as well as the associated chemistry and the pumping energy requirements, we provide the first estimate of the potential CO2emissions due to bicarbonate extraction (CO2 release due to lowering of groundwater table) and groundwater pumping.

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